About the EARL Lab

Welcome to the Entrepreneurship and Adversity Research (EARL) Lab! 

EARL was founded in 2023 as a research lab dedicated to exploring entrepreneurship within contexts of adversity. Specifically, we focus on topics related to the challenges faced by various marginalized groups, including those affected by poverty, gender inequality, racial discrimination, immigration hurdles, crises, and other forms of disadvantage. 

We believe that entrepreneurship can be a transformative mechanism for individuals and communities facing different types of adversity. 

Through our comprehensive research agenda and collaborative efforts, we work on a varied portfolio of research projects, using both qualitative and quantitative research methods, which aim to uncover insights that can empower individuals and communities to navigate adversity.

If you are interested in learning more and join our group, contact Dr. Susana C. Santos at ssantos@jmc.fsu.edu.

Learn more about our work in topics related to entrepreneurship and adversity: 



Morris, M. H. & Santos, S. C. (forthcoming, 2024). Poverty, disadvantage and the promise of enterprise: A capabilities perspective (in press). Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. 

Morris, M., H. & Santos, S. C. (forthcoming, 2024). Handbook on Poverty and Entrepreneurship [in preparation]. [Editors]. DeGruyter Publishing.

Morris, M., Santos, S. C., & Neumeyer, X. (2018). Poverty and entrepreneurship in developed countries. Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN: 978 1 78811 153 9


Scholarly Articles

Santos, S. C., Liguori, E. W., Morris, M. H., & Gibbs, S. (2024). A racial identity approach to entrepreneurship: the lived experiences of African American and Black entrepreneurs. Small Business Economics, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-024-00909-z

Morris, M. H., & Santos, S. C. (2023). Editor’s note: Faith and the poverty entrepreneur. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, https://doi.org/10.1142/S1084946723010033

Santos, S. C. (2023). Editor’s note: Poverty, entrepreneurship and opportunity horizons. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 28 (3), https://doi.org/10.1142/S1084946723010021

Morris, M. H., Kuratko, D., F., Santos, S. C., & Soleimanof, S. (2023). Fear and the poverty entrepreneur: The paradox of failure and success. Business Horizons, 67(1), 41-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2023.07.002

Santos, S. C., Liguori, E. W., & Garvey, E. (2023). How digitalization reinvented entrepreneurial resilience during COVID-19. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2023.122398

Santos, S. C. & Neumeyer, X. (2023). The technologization of entrepreneurial processes: A poverty perspective IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 70(3), 1174-1185. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEM.2022.3195485

Santos, S. C., Costa, S., & Morris, M. H. (2022). Entrepreneurship as a pathway into and out of poverty: A configuration perspective, Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 34 (1-2), 82-109. https://doi.org/10.1080/08985626.2022.2030413  

Morris, M. H., Kuratko, D. F., Audretsch, D. B., & Santos, S. C. (2022). Overcoming the liability of poorness: Disadvantage, fragility and the poverty entrepreneur. Small Business Economics, 58, 41–55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-020-00409-w

Santos, S. C., & Neumeyer, X. (2021). Gender, poverty and entrepreneurship: A systematic literature review and future research agenda. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 26(3), 2150018-1 - 2150018-31. https://doi.org/10.1142/S1084946721500187

Neumeyer, X., Santos, S. C., & Morris, M. (2020). Overcoming barriers of technology adoption in poverty entrepreneurship: The role of technology and digital literacy. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 68(6), 1605-1618. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEM.2020.2989740

Morris, M. H., Santos, S. C. & Kuratko, D. F. (2020). The great divides in social entrepreneurship and where they lead us. Small Business Economics, 57, 1089-1106. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-020-00318-y

Morris, M., Santos, S. C., & Neumeyer, X. (2020). Entrepreneurship as a solution to poverty in developed economies. Business Horizons, 63(3), 377-390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2020.01.010

Neumeyer, X., & Santos, S. C. (2019). A lot of different flowers make a bouquet: The effect of gender composition on technology-based entrepreneurship teams. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 16, 93-114. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-019-00603-7

Neumeyer, X., Santos, S. C., & Morris, M. H. (2019). Who is left out: Exploring social boundaries in entrepreneurial ecosystems. Journal of Technology Transfer, 44(2), 462-484. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10961-018-9694-0

Santos, S. C., Neumeyer, X., & Morris, M. H. (2019). Entrepreneurship education in a poverty context: An empowerment perspective. Journal of Small Business Management 57(S1), 6-36.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12485

Neumeyer, X., Santos, S. C., Caetano, A. & Kalbfleisch, P. (2018). Entrepreneurship ecosystems and women entrepreneurs: A social capital and network approach. Small Business Economics, 53(2), 475-489. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-018-9996-5

Santos, S. C., Caetano, A., Spagnoli, P., Costa, S. F., & Neumeyer, X. (2017). Predictors of entrepreneurial activity before and during the European crisis. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 13(4), 1263-1288. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-017-0453-8 


Other Valuable Resources and Partnerships 

Global Partnership for Poverty and Entrepreneurship

Urban Poverty and Business Initiative